Qualitative Research: 3 Practical Tips on What to use When

This article is for people who want to use re-emerging qualitative research techniques like individual interviews, focus groups and online communities but who lack the experience to know what technique to use when. 



The 3 Things to Consider

To choose the method, first identify what you want to find out

  1. Behaviour - what people do?
  2. Psychology - what people think or feel, what motivates them or demotivates them?
  3. Culture and society - how concepts and ideas are expressed and how this is changing, how topics are debated and discussed.

1. Researching behaviour

If you want to find out about customer or user behaviour, you need to conduct some form of ethnography.  In commercial research (rather than in anthropology), ‘ethnography’ usually means observing people directly as they are doing whatever it is you are interested in. Conversation will also be part of this.

Observation should be ‘in the wild’, i.e where people usually are when they use this product or service. If the product or service is used by people on their own, observe people using it on their own.  If interaction with others or with specific places or objects is a key part of this product or service, make sure you observe in those contexts.

Ask yourself: do I have the right skills for this? 

To do ethnography well you need to be a good and patient impartial observer and to be able to put people at their ease. If this is not your skill set, ask a professional to do this for you.

2. Researching psychology

If you want to know what people think or feel, or to find out what motivates people, then you will need to interview them, whether that means in person or online.  

The method to use depends on three things: what you want to know, who you want to know it from and what kind of material you have to research or test.

What you want to know:

Who you want to know it from:

How much material you have:

The skills you need for any form of interviewing are:  

The ability to craft the right question in the right way; the ability to listen; and an understanding of the logistics involved.  If these are not in your skill set, ask a professional.

3. Culture and society

Let’s say that you want to know how people’s ideas of ‘freshness’ are changing or how a concept like ‘the right to privacy’ is being debated and discussed. These are cultural issues, so you need to use cultural analysis methods.  There are two of these:

The skills you need: 

These are specialist topics.  Contact a professional.




Tags: Semiotics, Market Research, Qualitative Research , Ethnography